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09-Mar-2018 23:22

After the demise of the Second Triumvirate, Augustus restored the outward façade of the free Republic, with governmental power vested in the Roman Senate, the executive magistrates, and the legislative assemblies.

In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator.

He was born at Ox Head, a small property on the Palatine Hill, very close to the Roman Forum.

He was given the name Gaius Octavius Thurinus, his cognomen possibly commemorating his father's victory at Thurii over a rebellious band of slaves.

Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Dalmatia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia; expanding possessions in Africa; expanding into Germania; and completing the conquest of Hispania.

Beyond the frontiers, he secured the Empire with a buffer region of client states and made peace with the Parthian Empire through diplomacy.

The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana (The Roman Peace).

The resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire.

However, though some of his contemporaries did, Historians usually refer to the new Caesar as Octavian during the time between his adoption and his assumption of the name Augustus in 27 BC in order to avoid confusing the dead dictator with his heir.

A later senatorial investigation into the disappearance of the public funds took no action against Octavian, since he subsequently used that money to raise troops against the Senate's arch enemy Mark Antony.

Upon his adoption, Octavius assumed his great-uncle's name Gaius Julius Caesar.

Roman citizens adopted into a new family usually retained their old nomen in cognomen form (e.g., Octavianus for one who had been an Octavius, Aemilianus for one who had been an Aemilius, etc.).

Philippus never had much of an interest in young Octavius.